An introduction to the analysis of bipolar disorder

Of notice, as the concept of bipolar spectrum is progressively expanded, the diagnosis of unipolar depression becomes extremely restricted and tends to disappear. No Necesito Ayuda!

bipolar disorder research paper

Based on a dimensional approach, it expanded the diagnosis of BD beyond the categorical framework established by DSM-IV, based on the assumption that individuals with a strong genetic load for BD can experience different varieties of bipolarity.

The implications of those findings are addressed in Section 5 of the present paper. While the cooccurrence of BPD and BD seems to be quite common [ 16 ], the similarity between borderline personality and bipolar disorder may contribute to the diagnostic confusion involving these two conditions.

Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Check out our Privacy and Content Sharing policies for more information. Antipsychotics, antidepressants, and antiepileptic drugs are given to treat the mood episodes.

Unlike simple mood swings, each extreme episode of bipolar disorder can last for several weeks or even longerand some people may not experience a "normal" mood very often. Similar findings were obtained by another study [ 22 ] which retrospectively analyzed the records of patients with BD admitted to a dual diagnosis inpatient unit.

The boundary between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder: current concepts and challenges. Specifically in regard to BD, a recent study documented a fortyfold increase in the diagnosis of bipolar disorder in children [ 25 ].

Angst J.

An introduction to the analysis of bipolar disorder

Here, we highlight two areas of current interest: the discovery of the first BD risk genes and their implications, and the application of novel technologies with the potential to refine, or redefine, the BD phenotype. Schizophrenia Bulletin. Anger and impulsivity, often present in patients with antisocial personality disorder, may be misinterpreted as irritable mood [ 15 ]. The Genomics of Bipolar Disorder A child of an affected parent has about a tenfold increased risk of developing BD, and twin studies estimate a heritability of 0. Abstract Bipolar disorder BD is a leading cause of global disability. Psychiatric Times. Diagnostic issues in childhood bipolar disorder. Perhaps the most important limitation of the DSM-based diagnosis of BD comes from its inability to identify bipolar patients without a typical history of classic manic or hypomanic symptoms, that is, a patient whose index episode is depressive. However, there is little evidence for BD-specific genes; joint GWAS analyses show substantial commonalities in risk loci for BD and schizophrenia [16] , as well as significant overlap with other major psychiatric disorders [17] and with intermediate phenotypes, including circadian traits 18 ,

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Whereas it is expected that these progresses bring about increments in the diagnosis of BD in the long term, it is unlikely that a single biomarker might be able to identify patients with BD, given the biological and clinical heterogeneity of that condition [ 39 ].

Journal of abnormal psychology bipolar disorder

Furthermore, some of the criteria used to characterize manic or hypomanic episodes are unspecific, such as decreased concentration, racing thoughts, and psychomotor agitation. Vieta E. The number of episodes in each mood phase, and their duration, varies markedly between individuals, but for most patients the depressive episodes are more prolonged and are responsible for much of the morbidity of the disorder. Whereas it is expected that these progresses bring about increments in the diagnosis of BD in the long term, it is unlikely that a single biomarker might be able to identify patients with BD, given the biological and clinical heterogeneity of that condition [ 39 ]. Diagnostic issues in childhood bipolar disorder. Hatfield, Harriet P. For broader reviews of BD, see 10 , Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Perhaps the most important limitation of the DSM-based diagnosis of BD comes from its inability to identify bipolar patients without a typical history of classic manic or hypomanic symptoms, that is, a patient whose index episode is depressive. Fuller Torrey's book "Surviving Schizophrenia" is an book we highly recommend for every family affected by schizophrenia. Abstract Bipolar disorder BD is a leading cause of global disability. No Necesito Ayuda! Diagnosing bipolar disorder and the effect of antidepressants: a naturalistic study.
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An Introduction to the Analysis of a Bipolar Disorder