Building automation

Current systems provide interoperability at the application level, allowing users to mix-and-match devices from different manufacturers, and to provide integration with other compatible building control systems. Another example is a variable frequency drive ramping up a motor slowly to avoid a hard start.

Building automation system pdf

Building Automation Systems are also sometimes used to regulate the amount of fresh air that is allowed into a building or to maximize the ratio of natural-to-electric light. Each box has a damper that is opened or closed based on how much heating or cooling is required in its space. Reciprocating chillers are commonly used for capacities below tons; centrifugal chillers are normally used to provide higher capacities; rotary and screw chillers are less commonly used, but are not rare. Constant volume air-handling units The less efficient type of air-handler is a "constant volume air handling unit," or CAV. A VAV air handler can change the pressure to the VAV boxes by changing the speed of a fan or blower with a variable frequency drive or less efficiently by moving inlet guide vanes to a fixed-speed fan. These controllers come in a range of sizes and capabilities to control devices commonly found in buildings, and to control sub-networks of controllers. A building automation system can also help to optimize the use of heavy pieces of equipment, increasing their lifespans and providing more indirect savings.

Vapor compression chillers may utilize reciprocating, centrifugal, screw, or rotary compressor configurations. For example, because the variable frequency drive needs power itself to communicate with the building automation system, run its cooling fan, etc.

Additionally, you can avoid false alarms that hurt productivity by using intelligent filters and prioritizing non-critical events into different levels of urgency. Capacity control in a chilled water system is usually achieved through modulation of water flow through the coils; thus, multiple coils may be served from a single chiller without compromising control of any individual unit.

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These are just some of the benefits of using building automation. Similarly, electrical fault detection systems can turn entire circuits off, regardless of the number of alarms this triggers or persons this distresses.

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Refrigerant sensors can be used to indicate a possible refrigerant leak. Additionally, you can avoid false alarms that hurt productivity by using intelligent filters and prioritizing non-critical events into different levels of urgency. The supply fan and return if applicable is started and stopped based on either time of day, temperatures, building pressures or a combination. In the US, the electrical grid uses a frequency of 60 Hertz or 60 cycles per second. The chilled water system will have chiller s and pumps. A digital input indicates if a device is turned on or not - however it was detected. Analog temperature sensors are placed in the hot water supply and return lines. Reductions in peak load and other energy use benefits serve to further decrease utility costs. Capacity control in a chilled water system is usually achieved through modulation of water flow through the coils; thus, multiple coils may be served from a single chiller without compromising control of any individual unit. To really get the most out of a BAS though, it is important to invest in a diverse array of smart meters and sensors to detect resource use and other relevant data points in real time. This is often referred to as vampire power or phantom loads. Financial Advantages A correctly used BAS will generally pay for itself over time in lower utility bills alone.
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Building Automation and Control