The dangers and hazardous effects of oil spill should be made known to all
Effects of oil spills on marine life
Understanding both types of impacts can help spill responders minimize overall impacts to ecological communities and help them to recover much more quickly. Such perceptions are understandable as they are often fuelled by distressing images of oiled birds and other wildlife. Although the concentration of dissolved chemicals within an oil plume is relatively low when compared to freshly released oil, toxicity of certain dissolved chemicals may still be a concern. Access is needed to data on the toxicological effects of oils and dispersants, but data may qualify as proprietary information, which may prevent individuals or companies from releasing the data to the public. Edward Overton, Louisiana State University The sparse data on exposure to oil spills and the human health effects of such exposure, coupled with the reality that not all oil spills are the same e. In some cases, in order to preserve market confidence and to protect fishing gears, fishing or harvesting bans may be imposed or voluntarily implemented. Additionally, a number of participants noted the impact that a failing economy can have on health. Dissolution or subsurface weathering. Natural radioactivity and trace metals in crude oils: Implication for health. Goldstein stated that a growing body of knowledge has been building around the inextricable link between health and the environment. Once shorelines are clean, normal trade and activities would be expected to resume. Untrained people should not try to capture any oiled bird or animal. For example holidaymakers may decide to book holidays in other regions in which case hotels, tour operators and potentially their suppliers may suffer losses. Environmental risk factors and hospital-based cancers in two Nigerian cities. If the oil washes into coastal marshes, mangrove forests, or other wetlands, fibrous plants and grasses absorb oil, which can damage plants and make the area unsuitable as wildlife habitat.
Footnotes There are 42 gallons in a typical barrel of crude oil. Radioactivity concentration and heavy metal assessment of soil and water, in and around Imirigin oil field, Bayelsa state, Nigeria.
Bp oil spill effects on humans
Information about the components is available on the Nalco Company website Nalco, Workshop presenters and attendees examined a broad range of potential health issues related to the Gulf oil disaster and response. The structure of the hydrocarbon e. The physical environmental characteristics of the marine environment and coast also play a role in determining the range and extent of economic impacts. Niger J Clin Pract. Observing that many participants were both directly and intimately involved in current response efforts to the Gulf oil spill, he thanked planning committee members, local hosts, and every participant for attending the workshop on such short notice. Once shorelines are clean, normal trade and activities would be expected to resume. Laffon and her team concluded that, because the results of the first test were positive, there was significant DNA damage, but the negative results of the second test suggest that whatever damage occurred initially did not persist. J Epidemiol Community Health. Box summarizes the emerging themes. Corexit , the dispersant being used at the time of the workshop, is composed of six components.
The weathered oil is neutrally buoyant and can easily wash down into the water column and settle on the bottom of the ocean floor. For example, shallow coral reefs are some of the most dynamic environments, frequently exposed to the intense forces of typhoons and tsunamis.
Food insecurity, malnutrition and crude oil spillage in a rural community in Bayelsa State, south-south Nigeria. Also in the second part of the study, the researchers examined levels of exposure to VOCs and heavy metals and found that, with respect to VOCs, volunteers were the most exposed and workers using high-pressure water machines were the least exposed.
Long term effects of oil spills
Lastly, because there are so many compounds present in oil, it is difficult to evaluate toxicity. Laffon and her team concluded that, because the results of the first test were positive, there was significant DNA damage, but the negative results of the second test suggest that whatever damage occurred initially did not persist. Shrimp and oyster fisheries along the Louisiana coast were among early casualties of the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. What Happens to Oil in the Environment? Fisheries and Mariculture Fishing fleets can be affected by spilled oil, either as a result of contamination of vessels and year or by fishing bans. They designed a study with two key objectives: 1 to evaluate the genotoxic effects of oil exposure during the handling of oil-contaminated birds and the cleaning of beaches and rocks; and 2 to determine the influence of physiological factors, consumption habits, and the use of protective devices on genotoxicity. Fish and Whales An oiled seabird was found dead on the beach following the Kuroshima oil spill near Dutch Harbor, Alaska, in November Appendix D includes a brief summary of the public comments and questions submitted to the IOM through all four methods.
Laffon and her team concluded that, because the results of the first test were positive, there was significant DNA damage, but the negative results of the second test suggest that whatever damage occurred initially did not persist.
Goldstein stated that a growing body of knowledge has been building around the inextricable link between health and the environment.
World Health Organization. Oil coats fur of otters and seals, leaving them vulnerable to hypothermia. J Environ Chem Ecotoxicol.
Geneva: World Health Organization; Guideline for drinking water quality. Int J Phy Sci.
Finally, oil contains a class of residue, asphaltenes, which together form what we call road tar. Environmental cadmium exposure, adverse effects and preventive measures in Japan. The Exxon Valdez oil spill killed from , to , seabirds, plus shore birds and bald eagles. Laffon and colleagues surmised that, because the clean-up workers had been exposed for several months before testing, they may have developed an adaptive response over time. Information about the components is available on the Nalco Company website Nalco, Despite massive clean-up efforts following the Exxon Valdez oil spill , for example, a study conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA found that 26, gallons of oil were still trapped in the sand along the Alaska shoreline. Commitment Long-term surveillance and related research activities are critical to identifying acute, chronic, and long-term health effects of oil spills. There is a long list of the types of economic activities that may be affected by oil spills. Drawing on the best scientific expertise, the workshop examined a broad range of health issues potentially related to the Deepwater Horizon oil disaster and response with a focus on informing health-monitoring and health care efforts. An assessment of high risk sexual behaviour and HIV transmission among migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. However, as Overton stated, most health studies have focused on the heavier PAH compounds, which tend to remain in the water. Furthermore, although the current affiliations of panelists are noted in the report, many speakers qualified their comments as personal opinion that did not necessarily represent the positions of their affiliated organizations unless specifically noted. Fish and Whales An oiled seabird was found dead on the beach following the Kuroshima oil spill near Dutch Harbor, Alaska, in November In the context of the Gulf oil spill, photo-oxidation occurs when sunlight facilitates a chemical reaction between the air and oil.
Initial effects of the grounding of the tanker Braer on health in Shetland.
based on 73 review